The Sikh holy scriptures refer to the One God who pervades the whole of space and is the creator of all beings in the universe. [25] The concept of ethical monotheism, which holds that morality stems from God alone and that its laws are unchanging,[26][27] first occurred in Judaism,[28] but is now a core tenet of most modern monotheistic religions, including Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, and Baháʼí Faith. *, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFEsposito1998 (, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFEsposito2002 (, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFPeters2003 (, Vincent J. Cornell, Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol 5, pp.3561-3562, Asma Barlas, Believing Women in Islam, p.96. Again, it's far too simple to say that Abraham discovers monotheism. Judaism is very old, but it was not originally monotheistic (see below).. An earlier instance of monotheistic or monotheistic-esque worship occurred in the form of Atenism, the worship of the deified sun-disk Aten in Ancient Egypt.The Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (later Akhenaten), reigning around 1353/1351-1336/1334 B.C., promoted it as an arguably monotheistic state religion for Egypt. monotheism Foreign Judaism in Ancient Rome November 6, 2014 [email protected] It seems that the Romans were mostly supportive of Judaism until around the first century. However this religion was mostly replaced with the Abrahamic religions. R. Meserve, Religions in the central Asian environment. Rastafari refer to their beliefs, which are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible, as "Rastalogy". [32], While all adherents of the Abrahamic religions consider themselves to be monotheists, some in Judaism do not consider Christianity to be a pure form of monotheism (due to the Christian doctrine of the Trinity), classifying it as shituf. Polytheism recognises the diversity in mankind and provides for different temperaments and liking. [103], In western Eurasia, the ancient traditions of the Slavic religion contained elements of monotheism. D monotheism. The opening verse of the Guru Granth Sahib, known as the Mul Mantra, signifies this: The word "ੴ" ("Ik ōaṅkār") has two components. [77], Medieval Islamic philosopher Al-Ghazali offered a proof of monotheism from omnipotence, asserting there can only be one omnipotent being. 1a) The first continuous monotheistic tradition and religion as we know it, was and is Judaism, the tradition founded by Abraham. F irrigation G metalworking H road building Keywords: monotheism, iconoclasm, Amun, Amarna, Aten, Akhenaten Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. [63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70] Islamic belief states that Muhammad did not bring a new religion from God, but rather the same religion as practiced by Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus and all the other prophets of God. The Euthyphro dilemma, for example, is formulated as "Is that which is holy loved by the gods because it is holy, or is it holy because it is loved by the gods?"[141]. Hinduism cannot be said to be purely polytheistic. [76] To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin mentioned in the Quran. [55], Unitarianism is a theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism. Zoroastrianism proclaims an evolution through time from dualism to monotheism.[128]. On some occasions in the mythology, the Sky Lord as identified as a male has been associated to mate with an Earth Mother, while some traditions kept the omnipotence of the Sky Lord unshared. Monotheism is a form of religion practiced by humans which tells of a single omnipotent and omniscient deity called the One True God. (29:46). Since the sixth century BCE, Zoroastrians have believed in the supremacy of one God above all: Ahura Mazda as the "Maker of All"[19] and the first being before all others. (Yasna 31.8). Although its popularity gradually diminished after the advent of Taoism and Buddhism, among other religions, its concepts remained in use throughout the pre-modern period and have been incorporated in later religions in China, including terminology used by early Christians in China. Some (approximately 3%) of Oromo still follow this traditional monotheistic religion called Waaqeffannaa in Oromo. In Chinese and Turco-Mongol traditions, the Supreme God is commonly referred to as the ruler of Heaven, or the Sky Lord granted with omnipotent powers, but it has largely diminished in those regions due to ancestor worship, Taoism's pantheistic views and Buddhism's rejection of a creator God. [29], According to Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition, monotheism was the original religion of humanity; this original religion is sometimes referred to as "the Adamic religion", or, in the terms of Andrew Lang, the "Urreligion". Get an answer to your question "The Babylonians practiced A: monotheism B: polytheism ..." in History if there is no answer or all answers are wrong, use a search bar and try to find the answer among similar questions. 2. in the Nasadiya sukta. All but two bishops took the first position; while Arius' argument failed. The best-known Jewish statements of monotheism occur in the Shema prayer, the Ten Commandments and Maimonides' 13 Principles of faith, Second Principle: G-d, the Cause of all, is one. Monotheism . Heaven sent down snow, frost, rain, and dew to grow the five grains and flax and silk that so the people could use and enjoy them. See more. [citation needed] In shifting his court from the traditional ceremonial centres Akhenaten was signalling a dramatic transformation in the focus of religious and political power. They study religion objectively and do not attempt to say whether any religion is right or wrong. In this lesson, we'll discuss three significant monotheistic religions that sociologists study. Polytheism means believing in more than one god. There are three main Polytheistic religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Hinduism. When we talk of ancient Hebrews, we usually mean Israelites and Judahites from the period of the Judges and the early monarchy—prior to 722 BCE. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. Polytheism, the belief in many gods. "[104] The deity to whom Procopius is referring is the storm god Perún, whose name is derived from *Perkwunos, the Proto-Indo-European god of lightning. Ethical monotheism means two things: 1. Prefix and Akhenaten and monotheism in Abrahamic religions. Second, Wellhausen applied certain aspects of Darwinism to the area of religion. The Perfect Lord is perfectly pervading and permeating the water, the land and the sky; there is no place without Him.". [98] Aten was addressed by Akhenaten in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the Aten: "O Sole God beside whom there is none". Polytheism, the belief in many gods. As such, he is therefore regarded as Svayam Bhagavan. Sikhs believe in one, timeless, omnipresent, supreme creator. The concept of monotheism (known as tawhîd inArabic) is the single most important concept in Islam. A narrower definition of monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world. How to use monotheism in a sentence. Others regard him as a human prophet who fully recognised the inner divinity within every individual. Monotheism is a style of religious belief that asserts the existence of only one God. As an old religion, Hinduism inherits religious concepts spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, and atheism among others;[106][107][108][109] and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed. In polytheistic religions, responsibility for reality is parceled out among multiple gods. Polytheism, the belief in many gods. [142] In the writings of Plotinus, "The One" is described as an inconceivable, transcendent, all-embodying, permanent, eternal, causative entity that permeates throughout all of existence. The ruler of China in every Chinese dynasty would perform annual sacrificial rituals to Shangdi, usually by slaughtering a completely healthy bull as sacrifice. Unlike the later creeds of Christianity, there was no comparable creed in the various eth… For an overview of the Śatarudriya see: Kramrisch, pp. Monotheistic deities are generally all-encompassing beings precisely because they are viewed as the only deity in existence. Cherokee religion, for example, is monotheist as well as pantheist. These Christians also do not believe that one of the three divine figures is God alone and the other two are not but that all three are mysteriously God and one. The orthodox faith system held by most dynasties of China since at least the Shang Dynasty (1766 BCE) until the modern period centered on the worship of Shangdi (literally "Above Sovereign", generally translated as "God") or Heaven as an omnipotent force. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. [147] According to Lakota activist Russell Means a better translation of Wakan Tanka is the Great Mystery. [57][58] God in Islam is strictly singular (tawhid)[59] unique (wahid) and inherently One (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent. monotheism Foreign Judaism in Ancient Rome. [82] In Islam, the "Sabians" (Arabic: الصابئون‎ al-Ṣābiʾūn) are described several times in the Quran as People of the Book, alongside Jews and Christians. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Monotheism (from the Greek monos "only", and theos "god") is a word coined in comparatively modern times to designate belief in the one supreme God, the Creator and Lord of the world, the eternal Spirit, All-powerful, All-wise, and All-good, the Rewarder of good and the Punisher of evil, the Source of our happiness and perfection. November 6, 2014 [email protected] Yahweh was originally the national god of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah. [citation needed] At this time, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten (Agreeable to Aten) as evidence of his new worship. b. monotheism Answers: 1 Get Other questions on the subject: History. [118] A viewpoint differing from this theological concept is the concept of Krishna as an avatar of Narayana or Vishnu. Monotheism, the belief/worship of only one god, is practiced by many people, although with different gods. [79]:4 Its adherents, the Mandaeans, revere Adam, Abel, Seth, Enos, Noah, Shem, Aram, and especially John the Baptist. [75], Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession of faith, "There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God. "Devas are always looking to the supreme abode of Vishnu" (tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṁ padaṁ sadā paśyanti sṻrayaḥ Rig Veda 1.22.20), "The One Truth, sages know by many names" (Rig Veda 1.164.46)[120], "When at first the unborn sprung into being, He won His own dominion beyond which nothing higher has been in existence" (Atharva Veda 10.7.31)[121], "There is none to compare with Him. The Babylonians practicedA: monotheismB: polytheism. Biblical literalists also go back to the time of the legendary Abraham The first Asian civilizations emerged away from river valleys. The hymn is an early example of enumerating the names of a deity,[126] a tradition developed extensively in the sahasranama literature of Hinduism. Before Judaism was established by the ancient Hebrews, most river valley civilizations practiced— A humanism. [99], Under Akhenaten's successors, Egypt reverted to its traditional religion, and Akhenaten himself came to be reviled as a heretic. Nonetheless, in spite of this, Proto-Indo-European religion itself was not monotheistic. Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion,[129] although Zoroastrianism is often regarded[130] as dualistic, duotheistic or bitheistic, for its belief in the hypostatis of the ultimately good Ahura Mazda (creative spirit) and the ultimately evil Angra Mainyu (destructive spirit). This Play of Yours entrances me.". Sikhi is a monotheistic[132][133] and a revealed religion. Temple reveals secrets of the one God Archaeologists believe they have uncovered origins of monotheism in northern Jordan Stephanie Saldana Daily Star, Lebanon 5 March 2002 AMMAN: In a remote corner of Jordan The first is ੧, the digit "1" in Gurmukhi signifying the singularity of the creator. Nikiprowetzky, V. (1975). Monotheism is belief in a single god. A solar monotheism would not have been able to withstand the pressure of the simplest philosophy; it was tried again in the later Roman Empire by Aurelian (circa A.D. 270), but without the inspiration of genius and without popular effect. (7) BCE means before the Common Era; CE means Common Era. Recent Examples on the Web Since then, Cannonier has connected with his ancestral roots in African spirituality based on laws of the universe as opposed to traditional monotheism or polytheism. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? (8) The Book of Isaiah, probably the most influential of the prophetic writings, is the longest; but most scholars agree that it was written by at least two and probably three different individuals. [110], Traditions of Gaudiya Vaishnavas, the Nimbarka Sampradaya and followers of Swaminarayan and Vallabha consider Krishna to be the source of all avatars,[111] and the source of Vishnu himself, or to be the same as Narayana. What are the similarities between monotheism and polytheism There is no parallel to Him, whose glory, verily, is great." Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are widely practiced forms of monotheism. [34], During the 8th century BCE, the worship of Yahweh in Israel was in competition with many other cults, described by the Yahwist faction collectively as Baals. Heaven ordered the sun, the moon, and the stars to enlighten and guide them. This does not mean one as in one of a pair, nor one like a species (which encompasses many individuals), nor one as in an object that is made up of many elements, nor as a single simple object that is infinitely divisible. No act of worshipor devotion has any meaning or value if this concept is in any way compromised. think had a coregency with his son Amenhotep IV of two to twelve years. Monotheism definition is - the doctrine or belief that there is but one God. the Zoroastrians ("Parsis" or "Zartoshtis") are credited with being some of the first monotheists and having had influence on other world religions. The name 'Mandaean' is said to come from the Aramaic manda meaning "knowledge", as does Greek gnosis. Commonalities in Monotheism Monotheistic deities are generally all-encompassing beings precisely because they are viewed as the only deity in existence. It is traditional for Jews to say the Shema as their last words, and for parents to teach their children to say it before they go to sleep at night. However, reading historically, we realize monotheism is a very difficult and elusive concept to define. The text is important in Vedanta where Shiva is equated to the Universal supreme God. Monotheism is typically contrasted with polytheism (see below), which is a belief in many gods, and with atheism, which is an absence of any belief in any gods. Monotheism is the belief in one god and polytheism is the belief in more one than one god. God is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things" (Quran 6:103)[58] Allāh is the only God and the same God worshiped in Christianity and Judaism. He does, however, often speak of the gods in the plural form as well. Monotheism is a form of theism, generally defined as the belief in a single deity - though it has also been defined as "the belief that one supreme being exists whose will is sovereign over all other beings". According to Roger E. Olson and Christopher Hall, through prayer, meditation, study and practice, the Christian community concluded "that God must exist as both a unity and trinity", codifying this in ecumenical council at the end of the 4th century.[52]. Ancient Hindu theology, meanwhile, was monist, but was not strictly monotheistic in worship because it still maintained the existence of many gods, who were envisioned as aspects of one supreme God, Brahman. These three are described as being "of the same substance" (ὁμοούσιος). The Rigveda exhibits notions of monism of the Brahman, particularly in the comparatively late tenth book,[18] which is dated to the early Iron Age, e.g. They consider God to be a triune entity, called the Trinity, comprising three "persons", God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. [citation needed] It may also have coincided with the death of his father and the end of the coregency. [25] Although some later philosophers, such as Antisthenes, believed in doctrines similar to those expounded by Xenophanes, his ideas do not appear to have become widely popular. Zoroastrian Studies: The Iranian Religion and Various Monographs, 1928 – Page 31, Global Institutions of Religion: Ancient Movers, Modern Shakers – Page 88, Katherine Marshall – 2013, Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia – Page 348, James B. Minahan – 2012, Introduction To Sikhism – Page 15, Gobind Singh Mansukhani – 1993, The Popular Encyclopedia of World Religions – Page 95, Richard Wolff – 2007, Focus: Arrogance and Greed, America's Cancer – Page 102, Jim Gray – 2012, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 13:23. The number of auspicious qualities of God are countless, with the following six qualities (bhaga) being the most important: In the Shaivite tradition, the Shri Rudram (Sanskrit श्रि रुद्रम्), to which the Chamakam (चमकम्) is added by scriptural tradition, is a Hindu stotra dedicated to Rudra (an epithet of Shiva), taken from the Yajurveda (TS 4.5, 4.7). [citation needed] In Year 7 of his reign (1346/1344 BCE), the capital was moved from Thebes to Akhetaten (near modern Amarna), though construction of the city seems to have continued for two more years. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are widely practiced forms of monotheism. These belief systems are practiced by … [44], Some in Judaism[45] and Islam reject the Christian idea of monotheism. [138] His poems harshly criticize the traditional notion of anthropomorphic gods, commenting that "...if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could paint with their hands and create works such as men do,... [they] also would depict the gods' shapes and make their bodies of such a sort as the form they themselves have. The babylonians practiced a. polytheism. either/both, depending on which religion the person practiced. [87], God in the Baháʼí Faith communicates to humanity through divine intermediaries, known as Manifestations of God. Monotheism is the belief and worship of one god; Christianity is a monotheistic religion. Still, later variants such as Mohism (470 BCE–c.391 BCE) approached true monotheism, teaching that the function of lesser gods and ancestral spirits is merely to carry out the will of Shangdi, akin to the angels in Abrahamic religions which in turn counts as only one god. The puja of the murti is a way to communicate with the abstract one god (Brahman) which creates, sustains and dissolves creation. The idea that Akhenaten was the pioneer of a monotheistic religion that later became Judaism has been considered by various scholars. For the sake of clarity it is important that we define the terminology that is used in discussing this issue. Among early Christians there was considerable debate over the nature of the Godhead, with some denying the incarnation but not the deity of Jesus (Docetism) and others later calling for an Arian conception of God. The Nyaya school of Hinduism has made several arguments regarding a monotheistic view. 104, pp. Judaism was the first monotheistic religion that continued to exist and impact world history. Early civilizations lacked organized governments and social classes. How to use monotheism in a sentence. Monotheism definition is - the doctrine or belief that there is but one God. Later revisions of this Hellenic religion were adjusted towards monotheism as it gained consideration among a wider populace. It has features of monotheism in that Heaven is seen as an omnipotent entity, a noncorporeal force with a personality transcending the world. How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? The surviving fragments of the poems of the classical Greek philosopher Xenophanes of Colophon suggest that he held views very similar to those of modern monotheists. [134] Mandaeans spoke an East-Aramaic language in which 'manda' means 'knowledge'; this already is sufficient proof of the connection of Mandaeism with the Gnosis... harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHäberl2009 (, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSmith2008 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEffendi1944 (, Homer H. Dubs, "Theism and Naturalism in Ancient Chinese Philosophy,". 且吾所以知天之愛民之厚者有矣,曰以磨為日月星辰,以昭道之;制為四時春秋冬夏,以紀綱之;雷降雪霜雨露,以長遂五穀麻絲,使民得而財利之;列為山川谿谷,播賦百事,以臨司民之善否;為王公侯伯,使之賞賢而罰暴;賊金木鳥獸,從事乎五穀麻絲,以為民衣食之財。自古及今,未嘗不有此也。. Which one of the following is true of jamestown? Whilst Christianity is usually considered a monotheistic religion, but there are some critics who think that it is a matter of debate how "monotheistic" Christianity really is. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. It should be however noted that although it is usual to speak of Vishnu as the source of the avataras, this is only one of the names of the God of Vaishnavism, who is also known as Narayana, Vasudeva and Krishna and behind each of those names there is a divine figure with attributed supremacy in Vaishnavism. [72], The Quran asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world; a unique and indivisible being who is independent of the creation. The Hebrews practiced monothesism in Mesopotamia. 71-74. [83], God in the Baháʼí Faith is taught to be the Imperishable, uncreated Being Who is the source of existence, too great for humans to fully comprehend. From the writings of Confucius in the Analects, it is known Confucius believed that Heaven cannot be deceived, Heaven guides people's lives and maintains a personal relationship with them, and that Heaven gives tasks for people to fulfill in order to teach them of virtues and morality. 1 Kings 18, Jeremiah 2; Othmar Keel, Christoph Uehlinger, Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel, Fortress Press (1998); Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts, Oxford University Press (2001), Othmar Keel, Christoph Uehlinger, Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel, Fortress Press (1998); Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts, Oxford University Press (2001), See: * Accad (2003): According to Ibn Taymiya, although only some Muslims accept the textual veracity of the entire Bible, most Muslims will grant the veracity of most of it. [74] Ash'ari theology, which dominated Sunni Islam from the tenth to the nineteenth century, insists on ultimate divine transcendence and holds that divine unity is not accessible to human reason. This has been so from antiquity to the present. He believed that Israel evolved through primitive phases of religion in much the same way as the species evolved through biological phases of organic growth and development. Everything in Islam isbuilt upon it. There can be no confidence in a non-eternal and non-omniscient being, and hence it follows that according to the system which rejects God, the tradition of the Veda is simultaneously overthrown; there is no other way open. Judaism uses the term Shituf to refer to non-monotheistic ways of worshiping God. In Mozi's Will of Heaven (天志), he writes: I know Heaven loves men dearly not without reason. [112][113][114], When Krishna is recognized to be Svayam Bhagavan, it can be understood that this is the belief of Gaudiya Vaishnavism,[115] the Vallabha Sampradaya,[116] and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, where Krishna is accepted to be the source of all other avatars, and the source of Vishnu himself. According to this approach, monotheism did not appear until the days of the prophets in the 8th century B.C.E. [53] Each individual having a distinct purpose in the grand existence of human kind. Christianity. For 'the Word was made flesh.' The Naiyanikas have given an argument that such a god can only be one. The details of Atenist theology are still unclear. While the populace at large believed in a polytheistic pantheon, Aztec priests and nobles might have come to an interpretation of Teotl as a single universal force with many facets. A number of words derived from the name of this supreme deity are used in various Indo-European languages to denote a monotheistic God. The development of pure (philosophical) monotheism is a product of the Late Antiquity. The purpose of creation is for the created to have the capacity to know and love its creator. [54] Furthermore, Mormons believe that before the Council of Nicaea, the predominant belief among many early Christians was that the Godhead was three separate individuals. The Babylonian Talmud references other, "foreign gods" as non-existent entities to whom humans mistakenly ascribe reality and power. [74] The entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of tawhid. The obligatory prayers in the Baháʼí Faith involve explicit monotheistic testimony. Monotheism study guide by carlydunford includes 69 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. [149] There has been criticism to this idea, however, most notably that many assertions of this supposed monotheism might actually come from post-Conquistador bias, imposing an Antiquity pagan model unto the Aztec.[150]. • For instance, the strict monotheism practiced by early Christians effectively precluded the worship of Roman gods, which traditionally was seen as a sign of obedience and loyalty to the Roman Empire.3. Monotheism can be looked at from the following threeangles: 1.The Oneness of God in His Lordship 2.Devotion of All Worship to God Alone 3.The Oneness of God in His Names and Attributes These three angles can be elaborated u… Heaven ordained the four seasons, Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, to regulate them. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? Hence all the power of magic became dissolved; and every bond of wickedness was destroyed, men's ignorance was taken away, and the old kingdom abolished God Himself appearing in the form of a man, for the renewal of eternal life. What are some samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party? As such, it is distinguished from polytheism, the belief in the existence of many gods, and from atheism, the belief that there is no god. Define Monotheism. Due to the Messengers' influence in human history, these religions likely worship the same god. Monotheism is obviously the worship of one God and one alone; but he may be worshipped as one, only in the sense that the tribe or the community recognize him alone and admit no other deity into their society. Who is the patriarch of all of the … The exclusion of all but one god and the prohibition of idols was a radical departure from Egyptian tradition, but scholars[who?] Ostler, Jeffry. Learn more about polytheism, including such religions as Hinduism. Judaism, Christianity, Islam. [1][2][3][4] A narrower definition of monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient, and intervenes in the world. "[139] Instead, Xenophanes declares that there is "...one god, greatest among gods and humans, like mortals neither in form nor in thought. Monotheism, belief in the existence of one god, or in the oneness of God. God in later Judaism was strictly monotheistic,[42] an absolute one, indivisible, and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. What are the three major monotheistic religions. Because monotheism is founded upon the idea that there is only one god, it is common And the very existence of the Baháʼí Faith is a challenge to the Islamic doctrine of the finality of Muhammad's revelation. Nyaya says that: [If they assume such] omniscient beings, those endowed with the various superhuman faculties of assuming infinitesimal size, and so on, and capable of creating everything, then we reply that the law of parsimony bids us assume only one such, namely Him, the adorable Lord. Monotheism Most civilizations in the Middle East at the time of the Ancient Israel practiced polytheistic religions. [citation needed] Akhenaten associated Aten with Ra and put forward the eminence of Aten as the renewal of the kingship of Ra. If you only consider ethical monotheism, the first one is Judaism, practiced possibly as early as 2000 BCE, but there are many debates as to weather Judaism originated as a monotheism or a henotheism.